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A product is manufactured to perform desired functions. It must have a specified dimension such as length, width, height, diameter and surface smoothness to perform or accomplish its intended function. It means that each product requires a defined size, shape and other characteristics as per the design specifications. For manufacturing the product to the specified size, the dimensions should be measured and checked during and after the manufacturing process. It involves measuring the size, smoothness and other features, in addition to their checking. These activities are called measurement and inspection respectively. In the era of globalization, every industry must pay sufficient attention towards maintaining quality because it is another important requirement or function of a production unit. If a manufacturing concern wants to survive for longer time and to maintain its reputation among the users, it should under all condition apply enough efforts not only to keep up the standard of quality of its products once established but to improve upon the same from time to time. For this, every manufacturing concern must maintain a full-fledged inspection and quality control department which inspects the product at different stages of its production. Vigilant inspection of raw materials and products depends upon the entire process of standardization. The production unit of manufacturing concern must produce identical products. However a minor variation may be allowed to a predetermined amount in their finished dimensions of the products. The two extremities of dimensions of the product are called limits. All the parts of which the finished dimensions lie within these limits are acceptable parts. This facilitates easy and quicker production, easy inspection, requires less skill on the part of worker and accommodates a slight inaccuracy in the machine as well, resulting in an over all reduction in the production cost of the part.

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