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Joining Processes

Many products observed in day-to-day life, are commonly made by putting many parts together may be in subassembly. For example, the ball pen consists of a body, refill, barrel, cap, and refill operating mechanism. All these parts are put together to form the product as a pen. More than 800 parts are put together to make various subassemblies and final assembly of car or aero-plane. A complete machine tool may also require to assemble more than 100 parts in various sub assemble or final assembly. The process of putting the parts together to form the product, which performs the desired function, is called assembly. An assemblage of parts may require some parts to be joined together using various joining processes. But assembly should not be confused with the joining process. Most of the products cannot be manufactured as single unit they are manufactured as different components using one or more of the above manufacturing processes, and these components are assembled to get the desired product. Joining processes are widely used in fabrication and assembly work. In these process two or more pieces of metal parts are joined together to produce desired shape and size of the product. The joining processes are carried out by fusing, pressing, rubbing, riveting, screwing or any other means of assembling. These processes are used for assembling metal parts and in general fabrication work. Such requirements usually occur when several pieces are to be joined together to fabricate a desired structure of products. These processes are used developing steam or water-tight joints. Temporary, semi-permanent or permanent type of fastening to make a good joint is generally created by these processes. Temporary joining of components can be achieved by use of nuts, screws and bolts. Adhesives are also used to make temporary joints. Some of the important and common joining processes are:

(1) Welding (plastic or fusion),
(2) Brazing,
(3) Soldering,
(4) Riveting,
(5) Screwing,
(6) Press fitting,
(7) Sintering,
(8) Adhesive bonding,
(9) Shrink fitting,
(10) Explosive welding,
(11) Diffusion welding,
(12) Keys and cotters joints,
(13) Coupling and
(14) Nut and bolt joints.

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