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Metal Forming Processes

Forming processes encompasses a wide variety of techniques, which make use of suitable force, pressure or stresses, like compression, tension and shear or their combination to cause a permanent deformation of the raw material to impart required shape. These processes are also known as mechanical working processes and are mainly classified into two major categories i.e., hot working processes and cold working processes. In these processes, no material is removed; however it is deformed and displaced using suitable stresses like compression, tension, and shear or combined stresses to cause plastic deformation of the materials to produce required shapes. Such processes lead to production of directly usable articles which include kitchen utensils, rods, wires, rails, cold drink bottle caps, collapsible tubes etc.  Some of the important metal forming processes are:

Hot working Processes

(1) Forging,
(2) Rolling,
(3) Hot spinning,
(4) Extrusion,
(5) Hot drawing and
(6) Hot spinning.

Cold working processes:
(1) Cold forging,
(2) Cold rolling,
(3) Cold heading,
(4) Cold drawing,
(5) Wire drawing,
(6) Stretch forming,
(7) Sheet metal working processes such as piercing, punching, lancing, notching, coining, squeezing, deep drawing, bending etc.

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