Acid Rain

Fossil fuels are mixtures of various chemicals, including small amounts of sulfur. The sulfur in the fuel reacts with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide (SO2), which is an air pollutant. The main source of SO2 is the electric power plants that burn high-sulfur coal. The Clean Air Act...
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Ozone and Smog

If you live in a metropolitan area such as Los Angeles, you are probably familiar with urban smog—the dark yellow or brown haze that builds up in a large stagnant air mass and hangs over populated areas on calm hot summer days. Smog is made up mostly of...
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Energy and Environment

The conversion of energy from one form to another often affects the environment and the air we breathe in many ways, and thus the study of energy is not complete without considering its impact on the environment (Fig. 2–62). Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas...
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Problem Solving Technique

The first step in learning any science is to grasp the fundamentals and to gain a sound knowledge of it. The next step is to master the fundamentals by testing this knowledge. This is done by solving significant real-world problems. Solving such problems, especially complicated ones, require a...
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Pressure Measurement Devices

Another type of commonly used mechanical pressure measurement device is the Bourdon tube, named after the French engineer and inventor Eugene Bourdon (1808–1884), which consists of a hollow metal tube bent like a hook whose end is closed and connected to a dial indicator needle (Fig. 1–50). When...
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Temperature and Zeroth law of Thermodynamics

Although we are familiar with temperature as a measure of “hotness” or “coldness,” it is not easy to give an exact definition for it. Based on our physiological sensations, we express the level of temperature qualitatively with words like freezing cold, cold, warm, hot, and red-hot. However, we...
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The Steady-Flow Process

The terms steady and uniform are used frequently in engineering, and thus it is important to have a clear understanding of their meanings. The term steady implies no change with time. The opposite of steady is unsteady, or transient. The term uniform, however, implies no change with location...
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Any change that a system undergoes  from one equilibrium state to another is called a process, and the series of states through which a system passes during a process is called the path of the process (Fig. 1–26). To describe a process completely, one should specify the initial...
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The State Postulate

As noted earlier, the state of a system is described by its properties. But we know from experience that we do not need to specify all the properties in order to fix a state. Once a sufficient number of properties are specified, the rest of the properties assume...
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State and Equilibrium

Consider a system not undergoing any change. At this point, all the properties can be measured or calculated throughout the entire system, which gives us a set of properties that completely describes the condition, or the state, of the system. At a given state, all the properties of...
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