Pressure Measurement Devices

Another type of commonly used mechanical pressure measurement device is the Bourdon tube, named after the French engineer and inventor Eugene Bourdon (1808–1884), which consists of a hollow metal tube bent like a hook whose end is closed and connected to a dial indicator needle (Fig. 1–50). When...
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Temperature and Zeroth law of Thermodynamics

Although we are familiar with temperature as a measure of “hotness” or “coldness,” it is not easy to give an exact definition for it. Based on our physiological sensations, we express the level of temperature qualitatively with words like freezing cold, cold, warm, hot, and red-hot. However, we...
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The Steady-Flow Process

The terms steady and uniform are used frequently in engineering, and thus it is important to have a clear understanding of their meanings. The term steady implies no change with time. The opposite of steady is unsteady, or transient. The term uniform, however, implies no change with location...
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PROCESSES AND CYCLES

Any change that a system undergoes  from one equilibrium state to another is called a process, and the series of states through which a system passes during a process is called the path of the process (Fig. 1–26). To describe a process completely, one should specify the initial...
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The State Postulate

As noted earlier, the state of a system is described by its properties. But we know from experience that we do not need to specify all the properties in order to fix a state. Once a sufficient number of properties are specified, the rest of the properties assume...
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State and Equilibrium

Consider a system not undergoing any change. At this point, all the properties can be measured or calculated throughout the entire system, which gives us a set of properties that completely describes the condition, or the state, of the system. At a given state, all the properties of...
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Properties of a System

Any characteristic of a system is called a property. Some familiar properties are pressure P, temperature T, volume V, and mass m. The list can be extended to include less familiar ones such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, thermal expansion coefficient, electric resistivity, and even velocity...
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System and Control Volumes

A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings. The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary. These terms are illustrated...
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Application Areas of Thermodynamics

All activities in nature involve some interaction between energy and matter; thus, it is hard to imagine an area that does not relate to thermodynamics in some manner. Therefore, developing a good understanding of basic principles of thermodynamics has long been an essential part of engineering education. Thermodynamics...
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Thermodynamics and Energy

Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy. Although everybody has a feeling of what energy is, it is difficult to give a precise definition for it. Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause changes. The name thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat)...
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