The following precautions should be taken for fire prevention:
1. The maximum number of workers and officers should be trained with fire fighting systems and equipments.
2. Keep all flammable liquids in closed containers or in safe cylinders.
3. Effective fire warning signals.
4. All doors should be opened towards outside the workroom as means of escape in case of fire.
5. The doors and windows to be used as exit in case of fire should be easily located. These should be marked with red letters of adequate size.
6. Always select the least flammable liquid that will serve the purpose.
7. One should provide ventilation to prevent any accumulation of vapors.
8. Always provide suitable and adequate means of fire extinguishment.
9. Every operator should be familiar with the location of fire extinguishers and their use (operation).
10. Proper clearance should always be there in between the heating device and any combustible material.
11. Electrical wiring should be proper.
12. Always prohibit smoking, open flames and sparks near the flammable materials.
13. A free passageways and easily open-able windows should be always provided.
14. Provide always suitable means for the safe storage and handling of all fuel used.
15. Use of flammable liquids should be minimized.
16. Safe disposal for the flammable liquid wastes must be provided.
17. No one is permitted to accumulate fuels or other combustibles near the source of open fire or spark.
TYPES OF FIRE
There are three major types of fires which are given as under. Type 1 Fires occurring due burning of ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth and paper. Pouring water is the most effective way for extinguishing this kind of fire. Type 2 Fires occurring due burning of flammable liquids such as oils, petrol, grease and fat. For extinguishing, blanket or smother this kind of fire, thus excluding oxygen, water must never be used. Type 3 Fires in this category involve live electrical equipment. The extinguishing agent must be non-conducting of electricity and water must not be used for extinguishing this kind of fire. There are five basic kinds of fire extinguishers commonly used which are discussed as under.
1. Dry Powder Extinguishers These extinguishers filled with dry powder may be of the gas pressure or stored air pressure type. They are suitable for use on both Type 2 and Type 3 fires.
2. Foam Extinguishers These are of two main types commonly called mechanical foam and chemical foam type of fire extinguishers. They are effective against Type 2 fires.
3. Carbon Dioxide Type Fire Extinguishers These are filled with the carbon dioxide. It is operated by means of a plunger, lever trigger or by opening a valve. It is fitted with a distinctively shaped discharge horn. This type of fire extinguisher has only limited effectiveness against Type 1 kind of fires. It is suitable for extinguishing type 2 and 3 kinds of fires.
4. Water Filled Fire Extinguishers The soda acid kind is the most common kind of water extinguishers. They are most suitable for extinguishing fire for type 1. Such fires are resulting from ordinary combustible materials such as wood cloth and paper.
5. Vaporizing Liquid Type Fire Extinguishers They may be filled with either carbon tetrachloride (CTC.) or chlorobromethane (CBM) where as CTC kinds of extinguishers may be of the pump, gas cartridge or stored pressure type. And CBM may be either gas cartridge or stored pressure. These extinguishers are most effective against electrical kind of fire (Type 3).
6. Stored Air Pressure Type Extinguishers In stored air pressure type extinguishers, the container is pressurized with air when the extinguisher is filled. The extinguisher is trigger operated and operation can be stopped at any time by releasing the trigger grip. It is suitable for type 1 kind of fire only.
7. Gas Pressure Type Extinguishers In gas pressure type extinguishers the water is expelled under pressure provided by carbon dioxide gas released from cartridge filled inside the container. It is suitable for Type 1 kind of fire.