Process planning consists of selection of means of production (machine-tools, cutting tools, presses, jigs, fixtures, measuring tools etc.), establishing the efficient sequence of operation, determination of changes in form, dimension or finish of the machine tools in addition to the specification of the actions of the operator. It includes the calculation of the machining time, as well as the required skill of the operator. It also establishes an efficient sequence of manufacturing steps for minimizing material handling which ensures that the work will be done at the minimum cost and at maximum productivity. The basic concepts of process planning are generally concerned with the machining only. Although these concepts may also be extended to other processes such as casting, forging, sheet metal forming, assembling and heat treatment as well.