Mis-happening of a large number of fire hazards, accidents, industrial disasters etc., can be reduced to the minimum possible extent through careful safety planning within an industrial organization. All these unwanted events can be prevented by effective planning for safety. Safety consideration includes proper layout of buildings and equipment, such as providing adequate ventilation, sufficient… Read More »


In all kinds of industries, each shop supervisor is generally assigned the responsibility of safety in his shop regarding the men, machines and materials. Every supervisor in each shop ensures to the top executives in respect of all kinds of the safety matters. He is supposed to incorporate all new safety measures needed in the… Read More »


Factors governing increased productivity, more accuracy, greater flexibility of shapes, and reduced manufacturing costs are forcing the manufacturing concerns to use computers in design, manufacturing and other allied functions of industrial activities. With an increase in the need for quality manufacturing along with the factors such as short lead time and short product lives and… Read More »


A product development has to go through the following concepts of product engineering which are given as under. Product functions 1. Product specifications 2. Conceptual design 3. Ergonomics and aesthetics 4. Standards 5. Detailed design 6. Prototype development 7. Testing 8. Simulation 9. Design for manufacture 10. Design for assembly 11. Drafting Now let us… Read More »

Engine Components

The following is a list of major components found in most reciprocating internal combustion engines (see Fig. 1-15). Block: Body of engine containing the cylinders, made of cast iron or aluminum. In many older engines, the valves and valve ports were contained in the block. The block of water-cooled engines includes a water jacket cast… Read More »

Mass Moment of Inertia

It has been established since long that a rigid body is composed of small particles. If the mass of every particle of a body is multiplied by the square of its perpendicular distance from a fixed line, then the sum of these quantities (for the whole body) is known as mass moment of inertia of… Read More »


ACCELERATION feet per second per second = 30.48 centimeters per second per second = 0.3048 meters per second per second free fall (standard) = 9.8067 meters per second per second kilometers per hour per second = 27.778 centimeters per second per second = 0.9113 feet per second per second = 0.27778 meters per second squared… Read More »

Accident Prevent Measures

Few safety measures commonly used in industries comprise of the proper safety guards for reciprocating machine components such as drop hammers, presses, shaper, slotter, power hacksaw, paper cutters etc., fencing of dangerous and rotating parts like revolving shafts, incorporating safety devices such as safety valves, rigid construction of heavy items like hoists, cranes etc, proper… Read More »

4-Stroke Engine Basic Operations

1. Intake Stroke – The inlet valve is opened and the fuel/air mixture is drawn in as the piston travels down. 2. Compression Stroke – The inlet valve is closed and the piston travels back up the cylinder compressing the fuel/air mixture. Just before piston reaches the top of its compression stroke a spark plug… Read More »

Common Sources of Accidents

A large number of revolving, rotating, reciprocating and moving parts of machinery can be said as the sources of danger and require guarding for protection against accidents. Extensive studies reveal that some characteristic groups of dangerous parts are acting as common sources of accidents in workshops. Many such major sources are as under. 1. Revolving… Read More »